HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 20:34:36 GMT 秋霞Av

新闻分析:多角度精准发力 缓解小微企业融资难题

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 发展黄金期 LED新材料市场如哪般? (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

“北漂”买房故事:有了购房资格 没了买房的钱

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

面试官走进了壁橱,而不是会议室。
各大资产管理公司的专家们表示,评估亚洲ETF潜力的难题在于日本市场在地区所占比重过大,以及日本央行(Bank of Japan)扮演的角色过大。日本央行每年购买6万亿日元(合540亿美元)的ETF,这扭曲了市场。
至少在城市大部分人能去上班是不可能的,这将影响多个行业,包括金融、广告、医疗保健和艺术。近两天城市的交通线路、桥梁、隧道都瘫痪了,在最新的报告中,地铁到下周可能会正常运作。
Traditionalists include George Clooney, whose awards – best picture for Argo and best supporting Actor for Syriana – are in his library at home, and Dustin Hoffman, whose two best actor awards – the first for Kramer vs. Kramer in 1980 and the second for Rain Man nine years later, are kept in his study.
knot
1. Asana.
Country's biggest stars gathered in Las Vegas on Sunday for the 2013 Academy of Country Music Awards.

第三季度摄影师的工作增长了大约22%。报告的作者将这一增长归因于雇佣者“最终理解了他们的登录页面的高质量图片的重要性”。通过雇用受过培训的有创造力的专业人员来扩大提升网站知名度也是这一排行榜上的一个常在的主题。
5月7日-11日
与此同时,“全民基本收入”理念的热心支持者将会关注芬兰正在进行的一个试点。在法国,埃马纽埃尔马克龙(Emmanuel Macron)将在2018年审慎拿捏,改革劳动力市场,希望在不加大工人不安全感或激怒工会的情况下注入灵活性。
brace
“The worker threw a brick through the window with the words ‘I quit’ written on it.”

Footnotes

  • 上海张江科学城规划获批 新增住宅九成用于租赁
  • Comic skit “Happiness Of Today II” (Shen Teng, Ma Li etc)

他最近已开始和玛丽莎?梅耶尔(Marissa Mayer)、鲁伯特?默多克(Rupert Murdoch)这样的产业大亨进行会面(默多克正是《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)所属新闻集团(News Corp.)的董事长)。目前达洛伊西奥的资产净值已经很高,但还没多到令人眼红的地步。但正如轻博客(Tumblr)创始人大卫?卡普(David Karp)和29岁的Facebook神童马克?扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)一样,达洛伊西奥已非常值得钦佩。Summly早期投资方之一、兴盛资本(Thrive Capital)创始人乔舒亚?库什纳(Joshua Kushner)评价道,他的气场能震住整个房间的人,他这个年龄自我意识能如此之强,实属难得。
今年获得奥斯卡提名的音乐人将会齐聚一堂登上奥斯卡颁奖典礼的舞台。
Johan Pettersson被授予搞笑化学奖,以表彰其揭示了瑞典小城Andersl?v居民的头发会变绿的原因,因为这里的水中含铜量太大。
在这场充满政治色彩的颁奖典礼——唐纳德?特朗普(Donald Trump)屡次成为主持人吉米?基梅尔(Jimmy Kimmel)打趣的对象——的末尾,沃伦?比蒂(Warren Beatty)和费?唐纳薇(Faye Dunaway)宣布《爱乐之城》赢得此奖项。然而,就在这部达米安?沙泽勒(Damien Chazelle)编导的现代音乐片的制作人员和演员登上舞台、激动地发表致谢演说时,他们却被告知《月光男孩》才是真正的获奖者。
英国的一个收集全球气温纪录的科学小组也将在未来几周内提交报告。
北京正努力在年底前完成《区域全面经济伙伴关系协定》(Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership,简称RCEP)。该协议长期以来被称为中国面对《跨太平洋伙伴关系协定》(Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement,简称TPP)的对策,以及代表了中国争取区域贸易霸权的努力。

供给不足配套不够 激活“夜经济”如何破题

References

View Abstract